Performance Measures

An efficient and economical operation of the Central Power Plant in today’s environment requires the application of high-performance machinery as well as intelligent practices. Inadequate efficiency in converting fuel into power production, insufficient reliability and excessive emissions will prohibit an economic operation. Moreover, excellent safety is a prerequisite set by society and legislators. The performance of the CPP systems and generating equipment has to deliver the load and power demand of our customers in the most safe, reliable and efficient manner with minimal environmental impact. This means that Central Power Plant equipment and systems remain in the most optimum condition requiring professional maintenance and operational evolutions and business practices. All professional and successful organizations utilize defined indicators to measure in meeting their mission on a continuous basis.

The following are the performance measures the CPP Staff has chosen and then submitted with subsequent approval. We used the following criteria in choosing which measures would be a good indicator of how we meet our primary mission and in which all CPP Team members can have an impact maintaining baselines or improve, In addition the measures must be sustainable through all variables effecting CPP operations:

  • Choose those we have direct control over.
  • Minimal impact by change of budget allocations.
  • Minimal impact by change of commodity price.
  • Tie to evolutions which are continuous/reoccurring.
  • Ability to develop a realistic baseline.
  • Reflect your core mission.
  • All Team members can relate and understand their contribution.

Using these criteria the following are the performance measures the CPP will track and strive to maintain as a professional organization of world class stature.

  • Number of unplanned system outages four (steam - electric - air - DHW)
  • Heat Rate three (Plant overall - Combined Cycle - Steam Generators)
  • Steam Production Availability Factor (Unit Availability)
  • Maintenance Rework
  • Operational Error
  • Electric Production/Steam Production Ratio
  • Waste water discharge to steam production ratio
  • Plant CHP Efficiency Rating (efficiency rating to meet the CHP Award)

The following are definitions in identifying and measuring these indicators. Some are self explanatory others are defined to boundaries which are sustainable.

  1. Unplanned System Outages - (8) This will be when a system parameter deviates from the norm, which would effect the service function to a customer; system component becomes un-energized and not planned and/or announced in advance allowing a customer or effected University Operating Unit to take appropriate measures to prepare for effected service deviation. System outages which are caused by events outside of the plant will not be measured. Unplanned System Outages are commonly caused by Operational Error and Maintenance Rework.
    • Steam -
      • 9# (2) - Any pressure within the plant and/or distribution system below 6# or above 15#.
      • 60# (2) - Any pressure within the plant and/or distribution system below 55# or above 67#.
    • Electrical (2) - Loss of one or more buss.
    • Compressed Air (2) - Pressure within the plant and/or distribution system below 75#.
    • Domestic Hot Water (DHW) (2) -
      • Pressure within the plant and/or distribution system below 60#.
      • Temperature within the plant and/or distribution system below 100 degrees F.
  2. Heat Rate - The thermal conversion efficiency of a plant and units is measured by its heat rate. The thermal energy (BTU's) from fuel required to produce one kWh of electricity (BTU/kWh). Any deviation from a desired heat rate will have a direct impact on the cost (fuel) of our service to customers. Lowering the heat rate is very desirable. A plant's heat rate is determined by the plant's design, patterns and levels of operation, maintenance of systems and units including plant design modifications. . A desired Benchmark Heat Rate will be established for each area noted below.
    • Plant Overall
    • Combined Cycle Cogeneration
    • Steam Turbine Cogeneration
  3. Steam Production Availability Factor (SPAF) - The CPP must always be ready to meet the service demand of it's customers. SPAF provides us with an indication of our overall work effort as a team by all CPP groups to insure our steam generating units are available when needed. SPAF will be calculated by multiplying the Operational Steam Generating Index and Operational Steam Demand Index together. These are defined below. This will be measured on a daily, weekly and monthly basis with an annual year end averaged factor.
    • Operational Steam Generating Index - This index will measure the ratio of operational capacity to installed capacity and calculated by dividing installed into operational. Each is defined as:
      • Operational Capacity - The total of all steam generating units tested capacities which are not out of service for planned outages and unplanned outages.
      • Installed Capacity - The total of all installed steam generating tested capacity.
    • Operational Steam Demand Index - This index will measure the ratio of operational capacity available to the daily peak demand and calculated by dividing peak demand into operational availability. Each is defined as:
      • Operational Availability - The total of all steam generating units tested capacities which are available to be online within 4 hours.
      • Daily Peak Demand - The recorded (ASPEN) highest steam demand totaling all steam generating units steam flows.
  4. Maintenance Rework - (6) Knowing the level of rework and reasons why will allow the CPP Team to identify what strategies (i.e., maintenance training, operations training, development of work procedures, planning, and development of operating procedure and or purchasing practice) are required to minimize or eliminate rework. In addition it will provide a measure to show if the strategies are effective. Rework will be defined as work done that is the result of preventative maintenance and corrective maintenance repair work not being done right the first time, or from operations start-up errors, improper planning or direction by staff. Rework will also be defined on a time basis as appropriate to the type as follows:
    • within 7 days after operational service begins for individual components,
    • major equipment or unit first operational evolution within 90 days,
    • within 180 days of improper planning or direction by staff.
  5. Operational Error (EO) - (6) Incorrect or erroneous operational evolutions can lead to or cause accidents, unsafe environments, disruption of services, damage to systems and equipment along with effects to plant efficiency. Operations requires numerous inputs and outputs involving proper design, reliable maintenance, functional technology, human interaction and decision making. All of these require exacting coordination to make a successful evolution. This complex process by nature will result in operational error events occurring. All CPP groups working together and performing their expertise professionally will minimize the occurrence of operational errors to the performance indicator. Operational evolutions causing an unplanned system or unit outage, injurious incident, damage to equipment, violation to an operational related regulation, law or safety practice will be counted as an Operational Error. The following parameters will be used to determine a recordable Operational Error to the above:
    • Incorrect design of a system or component which caused the EO.
    • Improper or incorrect use of a device or system component involved in the EO.
    • Incorrect programming or operation of a control function or device involved in the operational evolution.
    • Not following and performing University and CPP procedures.
    • Not following any government mandated regulations and laws pertaining to CPP operations.
    • Not recording and/or communicating operational deviations or conditions involved with the EO.
  6. Electric Production/Steam Production Ratio - The key engineering principle which allows the CPP to provide cost effective services to or customers and meet the University mission is Cogeneration. A simple measurement for Cogeneration performance is the electric power production per amount of steam generation. The expected desirable ratio will change at times based upon fuel and purchased power variability and our required mission. Maintaining a desired ratio will mostly be effected by our operating evolutions to maximize electric production and maintenance/outage evolutions to insure reliability of all generating unit types.
  7. Waste Water Discharge to Steam Production Ratio - Water is the second largest commodity expenditure after fuel in power production at the Central Power Plant. The amount of waste water utilized is directly associated with operational and maintenance evolutions including equipment and system design. Maintaining the lowest possible water waste to the amount of production will minimize our environmental impact to the community and provide a lower utility cost to our customer.

Plant CHP Efficiency Rating (efficiency rating to meet the EPA CHP Award) - In 2002 the Environmental Protection Agency awarded the CPP a Energy Star Combined Heat and Power Award for significant fuel energy savings associated with our overall plant efficiency. The Plant Operations Director indicated he would like to see the CPP strive to achieve this award every year. The EPA does not award this on a reoccurring basis. The CPP in meeting the Director's request will make the EPA CHP efficiency rating a performance measure goal.

Content modified: May, 2006